2.4.4. Check of technical condition and repair of knots of the engine

Heads of cylinders

Fig. 115. Head of cylinders: 1 – hydraulic pushers; 2 – antirotational arm of hydraulic pushers; 3 – bars of a hydraulic pusher; 4 – yoke of the final valve;
5 – rack of an axis of yokes; 6 – pin; 7 – hairpin; 8 – the ring is sealing; 9 – mm Zh20 cap;
10 – saddle of the final valve; 11 – final valve; 12 – inlet valve; 13 – saddle of the inlet valve; 14 – mm Zh16 cap; 15 – the directing valve plug; 16 – basic washer of a spring of the valve;
17 – valve spring; 18 – plate of a valve spring; 19 – valve cracker; 20 – yoke of the inlet valve; 21 – the holding yoke plate; 22 – nut; 23 – rack of an axis of yokes with yokes assembled; 24 – cylinder head assembled; 25 – laying of heads of cylinders; 26 – bolt of fastening of a cover of yokes; 27 – cover of yokes; 28 – laying of a cover of yokes; 29 – laying of a stopper of an oil-filling mouth; 30 – stopper of an oil-filling mouth; 31 – plate of fastening of a head of the block of cylinders

The head of the cylinder is shown in fig. 115.

Remove heads of cylinders from the cooled-down engine in order to avoid a buckling of its surface.

Take valves by means of the special tool and number them.

Fig. 116. Combustion chamber insert

Remove a deposit from heads of cylinders and examine the interfaced surfaces of heads and the block of cylinders, if necessary grind in a head. The maximum thickness of the metal removed at grinding in should not exceed 0,20 mm, otherwise the head needs to be replaced; height of a head (90±0,05) mm. If it is necessary to replace an insert of the combustion chamber (fig. 116), the head should be heated in the furnace to
150 °C to take out an old insert and to establish new. The head with a new insert needs to be ground in. At installation of an insert it is not necessary to make excessive efforts.

Sizes of an insert of the combustion chamber, mm

In spare parts inserts of combustion chambers from the sizes A and E, increased by 0,6 mm and the size B increased by 0,5 mm in relation to the values specified in the table are delivered.
Height of plates 31 (see fig. 115) has to make 91,36–91,44 mm.

Fig. 117. Valves

The valves, nests, saddles directing plugs are shown in fig. 117, 118.

The interfaced sizes of valves, mm

54 °40 '-55 °20'
44 °40 '-45 °20'
55 °30 '-55 °50'
45 °25 '-45 °35'

Fig. 118. Installation of valves

Clear valves a wire brush. Replace extremely worn-out and faulty valves. Slightly worn-out valves can be used after processing of facets the pritirochny tool. At the same time the roughness should not exceed 2,5 microns. If grinding in of a head excessively reduces the size C (see fig. 118), and grinding in of valves increases a contact facet E, replace a valve saddle. When replacing do not damage a seat under a saddle. Heat in the furnace a head of cylinders to 150 °C and lower a saddle for cooling in liquid nitrogen. The saddle has to enter a head opening freely and without effort. Check an opening of the directing plug for existence рисок and zadir, wash out gasoline. The gap between a core of the valve and the directing plug has to be for the inlet valve of 0,040-0,075 mm; for the final valve of 0,060-0,093 mm.
It is necessary for replacement of the directing plug of the valve:
– to heat a cylinder head in the furnace to 80–90 °C;
– to beat out the worn-out directing plug from below of a head with the help a small beard of the suitable size;

Fig. 119. Installation of the directing plugs of valves

– at a temperature of a head of the cylinder of 80-90 °C to press the new directing plug, having sustained the size specified fig. 119.
In spare parts the directing plugs with the outer diameter increased by 0,1 mm are delivered.
Outer diameter of the plug is 14,040 - 14,028 mm, diameter of an opening in a head under the plug of 13,992-14,008 mm.

Springs of valves

Fig. 120. Check of height of a spring of valves:
and – without loading; – the valve is closed; in – the valve is opened for P1=0;
H1=44,65 mm

P2=31,96–36,04 гкс;
H2=38,60 mm

P3=88,8–96,2 kgfs;
H4=28,20 mm

Examine springs on existence of jags and traces of an overheat. Check their height at different loadings (fig. 120). At the same time degree of a curvature And (fig. 121) should not exceed 2 mm.

Fig. 121. Definition of degree of a curvature of springs of valves

Collector of the cooling system
Visually examine him on existence of chips, cracks and curvatures. Check whether flange privalochny surfaces are jarred on. In need of the collector replace. Roughness can eliminate with grinding in of all flanges before restoration of full contact with the respective site of a surface of a head of the cylinder.

Yokes of valves

Fig. 122. Rack of yokes: And – diameter of a pin of a rack

Carefully wipe with kerosene or solventy pins of racks and a yoke of valves. Clean oil channels. If the sizes (fig. 122) do not correspond to the values specified in the table it is necessary to replace yokes.
Value, mm
Diameter of a pin And
Diameter of an opening under a pin
Maximum permissible gap

Hydraulic pushers and their bars

Fig. 123. Hydraulic pusher

Make sure that bars of pushers direct, and their spherical ends are not damaged. Small roughnesses can be removed with grinding. The hydraulic pusher is represented in fig. 123. The sizes of a pusher and opening in the block of cylinders under a pusher which are subject to control are specified in the table.
Value, mm
Diameter of a pusher In       
Diameter of an opening       
Maximum permissible gap    

Sleeves of cylinders
Internal diameter of sleeves of cylinders (category A) has to be 92,000 - 92,010 mm.
Maximum ovality of 0,1 mm.
Maximum conicity of 0,1 mm.

Fig. 124. Scheme of measurement of sleeves of cylinders

You carry out check of ovality and conicity in three sections 1, 2, 3 (fig. 124) and two mutually perpendicular directions A and B.
At wear no more than 0,10 mm or insignificant defects of a mirror a sleeve can be restored a honingovaniye. The roughness of a surface has to be 0,8–1,2 microns.
Pistons and rings

Fig. 125. Installation of piston rings

Diameter of D (fig. 125) of not worn-out piston at distance of 15 mm from the lower end face of a skirt in section, perpendicular to a piston finger, has to be 91,913–91,927 mm. Wear of a skirt should not exceed 0,1 mm. If the gap between the piston and the cylinder exceeds 0,25 mm, replace sleeves and pistons. You watch that ovality of an opening in the piston under a finger did not exceed 0,05 mm, otherwise replace a finger and the piston.
Check an exact prileganiye of rings to a sleeve wall on all circle.
Data are specified in tab. 9.

Piston fingers and rods

Fig. 126. Check of rods

Examine rods on existence of wear (fig. 126) and cracks and if necessary carry out magnetic defectoscopy of rods, covers and bolts. Replace piston fingers if you find on them teases.
Value, mm
Internal diameter of an insert  of the top head of a rod And
Diameter of a finger of the piston B       
Maximum permissible gap 

Fig. 127. Check of parallelism of axes of heads of rods

Check parallelism of axes of heads of rods (fig. 127). The deviation should not exceed ±0,05 mm in all directions of measurement outside of a finger and at distance of 100 mm from the central line. When replacing an insert of the top head of a rod of an opening for lubricant on it combine with openings in a rod.

Fig. 128. Assembly of rods

At assembly grease a carving of bolts and their centering corbels (fig. 128) according to the table "Lubricants and Sealing Substances". Tighten bolts the moment of 29,4 N · m (3 kgfs · l), and then tighten them for 60 °. In need of replacement of a rod it is necessary to choose the rod of the same group on weight (having the same marking), as defective, or to apply all four rods of other group.

Fig. 129. Check of conrod necks of a bent shaft and inserts of the lower head of a rod

Diameters of conrod bearings and conrod necks of a bent shaft are given in fig. 129.
Value of diameter, mm
conrod neck of a bent shaft H
conrod bearing L
   - 0,125
   - 0,250
   - 0,500

Internal diameter of L (see fig. 129) needs to be measured on a collected rod with an inhaling of conrod bolts according to the provided instructions. A gap in connection a neck bearing of 0,030-0,064 mm.

Bent shaft

Fig. 111. Removal of a gear wheel of a bent shaft: 1 – gear wheel of a bent shaft; 2 – adaptation D

Ship a bent shaft in kerosene or сольвент and clean oil channels. Make sure that on a shaft there are no scratches, cracks, zadir, and on back and forward face surfaces and a carving – scratches and deformations. Check gear wheel teeths regarding their wear or damage. Small dredging and jags can be removed with grinding. For removal of a gear wheel use adaptation 2 (see fig. 111). At installation of a new gear wheel heat it in the furnace to 180–200 °C and you monitor the correct landing of a spline. Remove development of landing surfaces of epiploons with a fine-grained skin, doing the easy spiral movements in the direction opposite to rotation.

Fig. 130. Measurement of radical necks

Fig. 131. Measurement of conrod necks

Replace epiploons at each dismantle. Measure a micrometer radical and conrod necks (fig. 130, 131) in two mutually perpendicular directions for detection of wear and ovality. If wear is more than 0,10 mm, grind necks and install smaller bearings.

Fig. 132. Radiuses of necks: And – 2,7–3 mm;
In – 2,35–2,65 mm

After jamming, an overheat or grinding carry out magnetic defectoscopy of a shaft for detection of cracks on it. The roughness of necks has to be in a limit of 0,12 microns. Restore radiuses of necks (fig. 132). When grinding a shaft do not remove metal from cheeks. Use radical and conrod bearings only that size that are specified in tables of this manual.

Fig. 133. Replacement of the forward bearing:
1 – adaptation B

At wear the forward bearing needs to be replaced by means of adaptation 1 (fig. 133).

Fig. 134. Forward radical neck of a bent shaft

Sizes of a forward radical neck of a bent shaft (fig. 134)

Value of diameter, mm

necks And

bearing B
  - 0,125
  - 0,250
  - 0,500
Gap neck bearing of 0,043-0,103 mm
Width of the bearing is E 27,75–28,00 mm

Fig. 135. Central radical neck and its bearing

The measurement of internal diameter In central the radical bearing (fig. 135) is carried out at its installation in a support with an inhaling of bolts of a support the moment of 44,1 N · m or 4,5 (±5%) kgf · m.
At assembly of a support of the central radical bearing combine tags on the top and lower half.

Value of diameter, mm
necks And
bearing B
  - 0,125
  - 0,250
  - 0,500
Gap neck bearing of 0,030-0,088 mm
Width of the bearing N is 27,75–28,00 mm

Fig. 136. Support of the central radical bearing of a bent shaft: 1 – top half; 2 – inserts; 3 – lower half; 4 – bolt
(2 pieces); 5 – pin (2 pieces); 6 – valve jet coolings of the piston

If replacement of the valve 6 (fig. 136) is necessary, remove the top half of a support and, using a punch, remove the valve. Insert the new valve into a nest and fix by stamping in three points through 120 °.
Cases and covers of jet valves of cooling of pistons connect by means of a carving. Moment of an inhaling of 1,5 - 2,0 N · m. Valves have to open at 150–200 kPa (1,5–2,0 kgfs/cm2).

Fig. 137. Back radical neck of a bent shaft and its bearing

Sizes of a back radical neck of a bent shaft and its bearing (fig. 137)

Value of diameter, mm
necks And
bearing B
  - 0,125
  - 0,250
  - 0,500
Gap neck bearing of 0,050-0,085 mm
Width of the bearing is H – 32 mm

Check a nest of the back bearing on a support for existence of damage or wear. The bearing beating concerning an axis of a bent shaft should not exceed 0,03 mm.

Fig. 138. Support of the back radical bearing: 1 – back radical bearing; 2 – support of the back radical bearing; 3 – the valve is jet; 4 – persistent washer; 5 – back epiploon; 6 – ring

Check the following sizes of a support of the back radical bearing (fig. 138):
And – diameter of a nest under the bearing; equal 75,005–75,030 mm;
In – diameter of a nest under a back epiploon of a bent shaft, equal 120,000 - 120,030 mm.
With – the landing diameter of a support; equal 131,935–131,960 mm.

Sizes of a persistent washer of a support of the back radical bearing (fig. 138)

Thickness of a persistent washer, mm
The 1st increased
The 2nd increased


Fig. 139. Check of wear of necks and cams

Check a shaft for wear of his necks and cams. The sizes of cams (fig. 139) should not be less specified in the table more than 0,05 mm.

Parameter, mm
A, mm
B, mm
Height of ledges, mm

Fig. 140. Measurement of a deflection of a shaft

Fig. 141. Measurement of thickness of a persistent flange

The maximum deflection of a shaft measured by means of adaptation K (see the appendix 4), should not exceed 0,05 mm (fig. 140). If necessary the shaft needs to be corrected by means of a press. Check a condition of teeths of a gear wheel. When replacing a gear wheel use a press. By means of a micrometer measure thickness of S (fig. 141) of a persistent flange in points and, in, with, d. If thickness is not in limits of 3,950-4,050 mm, then the flange needs to be replaced.

Fig. 142. Check of the sizes of necks and bearings of the camshaft

Check the sizes of necks and bearings of the camshaft (fig. 142).
At assembly heat a new gear wheel in the furnace to 180–200 °C. Establish a persistent flange on a shaft and press a gear wheel on a shaft against the stop in shaft zaplechik. The side gap between a persistent flange and shaft is formed after details cool down. At correctly chosen gap the flange freely turns on a shaft.
The sizes of necks and bearings of the camshaft (see fig. 142).

Diameter of a neck
Value, mm
Internal diameter of the bearing B
Diameter of a nest is D
Outer diameter of the bearing C
Maximum permissible gap

In the spare part bearings with the reduced size at 0,25 mm of Century are also delivered.

Fig. 143. Replacement of bearings of the camshaft: 1 – adaptation B

To a vypressovka and a press fitting of bearings of the camshaft (fig. 143) use adaptation 1.

Fig. 144. Cooling system pump: 1 – shaft; 2 – bearing;
3 – epiploon

Pump of the cooling system (fig. 144)
Transfer relation between a bent shaft of the engine and shaft of the pump 1:1,418.
In case of leak of cooling liquid between a pump housing and the block of cylinders replace laying.
Check the pump for wear of a krylchatka. If it is necessary, replace the pump.

Forward cover of driving gear wheels of the engine
If necessary replace a forward epiploon of a bent shaft.

Fig. 145. Forward cover of driving gear wheels of the engine

Diameter of a nest With (fig. 145) has to be equal to 80+0,03 mm.

Vacuum pump
Check a condition of three blades and replace them in case of wear or damage. Check purity of an opening for supply of oil in a case and purity of details.

Block of cylinders

Fig. 146. Block of cylinders

Carefully clear the block of cylinders of the engine (fig. 146), using kerosene or other solvent. Pay special attention to carving openings and oil channels, and also the surface interfaced to heads of cylinders and front surfaces of openings under sleeves of cylinders.
Check whether is not present in oil channels of cracks and other defects. If necessary replace the block of cylinders.
Diameter of an opening for installation of the forward radical bearing has to be 67,025–67,050 mm.
Diameter of openings for camshaft bearings – 57,005–57,030 mm.
Diameter of openings for support of the central radical bearings – 168,00–168,80 mm.

Fig. 147. Oil case and maslozabornik

Maslozabornik (fig. 147)
Check whether there is no dirt in the filter of a maslozabornik.
Maslozabornik has to be without cracks, especially in places of welded seams. At each procedure of assembly replace a sealing ring between a maslozabornik and the block of cylinders.

Oil pressure valve (reducing valve)
Carry out check of operation of the valve by means of increase in pressure in system.
Connect the digital manometer and you watch that the valve was closed with a pressure below 400-450 kPa (4–4,5 kgfs/cm2).

Fig. 148. Block of cylinders of the engine (bottom view): 1 – oil pressure valve (reducing valve)

The valve of pressure of oil is located in the lower part of the block of cylinders (fig. 148).
For access to the valve remove an oil case.
Carefully clear the oil pressure valve, using kerosene or solvent.
If it is necessary, grind in the valve to its saddle, using mix for grinding in of valves to provide sufficient consolidation.
Check a valve spring under loading. If necessary replace a spring.

Loading, kgf
Length, mm
Spring without loading
The valve is closed
Beginning of opening of the valve
The valve is open

Oil pump
Check wear of details of the oil pump:
– maximum gap

Fig. 149. Oil pump: 1 – external rotor; 2 – internal rotor; 3 – shaft; 4 – pump housing;
5 – drive gear wheel

And between rotors (fig. 149) of 0,20 mm;

Fig. 150. Oil pump assembled: 1 – external rotor; 2 – internal rotor

– height In rotors of 1 and 2 (fig. 150) of 32,5-0,017 mm;
– diameter From an opening of the case of 58,13-58,18 mm;
– a gap of D between the case and rotors of 0,03-0,087 mm.
At repair the gap of D is allowed to be restored milling of the planes of a prileganiye of the case 4 (see fig. 149) the pump to the block of cylinders.
Transfer relation between a bent shaft of the engine and pump 1:0,666.

Rotation frequency
bent shaft, min2
Oil consumption,
±5%, l/min

In spare parts pumps only in assembled form are delivered.

Oil case
Check a condition of an oil case (see fig. 147). The surface of a case has to be without cracks and deformations.

Oil filter

Fig. 151. Removal of an oil filter

When replacing an oil filter use adaptation shown in fig. 151.

Inlet and final collectors
Check whether is not present on collectors of cracks and deformations, if necessary replace collectors.

Fig. 152. Check of collectors

The planes of flanges of collectors should not have zadir and deformations (fig. 152). If it is necessary, all flanges to a proshlifuyta.


Fig. 104. Nozzles: 1 – nozzle assembled;
2 – spray

Clear a nozzle cavity (see fig. 104) a wooden stick and wash out it pure diesel fuel. Eagle of a nozzle should wipe with suede, and to clear openings of a nozzle a thin wire, trying not to deform an opening.
Place a nozzle on the stand for test, turn on the pump. Pressure of opening of a nozzle has to be within 16 500–17 300 kPa.
At a deviation from these values adjust pressure, adding or deleting the laying located over a spring, respectively, for increase or reduction of pressure. Check efficiency of consolidations of a nozzle, having turned on the pump and having established pressure of 13 500 kPa. In the absence of tightness execute grinding in by means of pritirochny mix or replace a nozzle spray.
On the assembled engine visually check a nozzle for fuel leak.


Fig. 67. Check of an axial gap of a shaft of a turbocompressor

Before repair of a turbocompressor (see fig. 67, 68) it is necessary to be convinced that other details and systems of the engine are serviceable. Possible malfunctions are specified in tab. 10.